Improved Production Economics for Cement Manufacturers

Primary aluminum smelting uses:

  • large amounts of carbon
  • silica refractory materials
  • alumina as raw material
  • sodium and fluoride chemical compounds as flux.

The spent potlining waste material from aluminum smelting has all of these materials inextricably mixed together. A next optimised stage in the lifecycle of these materials is to simultaneously:

  • use the sodium and fluoride compounds as fluxes (1) and mineralizers (2) in energy intensive industries such as cement manufacture
  • convert the carbon to thermal energy
  • make use of the alumina and silica as raw materials.

Benefits include:

  • economic and environmental gain from reduced energy requirements and reducing greenhouse gas emission
  • cost effective access to fluxing and mineralizing chemicals
  • alternate and cost effective sources of fuel and raw materials.


  1. A flux is a substance that lowers the temperature at which solid materials enter a liquid phase and/or increases the quantity of liquid at a given temperature.
  2. A mineralizer is a substance that accelerates reaction rates and promotes the formation of desired materials in the liquid phase of cement clinker or similar materials. This results in a higher quality product with less residence time and less energy for processes such as cement making.